Before entering into a pre-service education program, most students will have obtained a previous academic degree, either a general or honours, in a subject of their choice, (e.g. English, math, science, religion). The alternative to this is that students may work simultaneously on an undergraduate bachelor’s degree and a pre-service education program. The latter route incorporates education courses throughout the program’s 4 or 5 years, and culminates in a final year of specific pre-service training. Students who complete a bachelor’s degree before returning to a university to complete the pre-service education program are in a consecutive pre-service program, while students who complete their pre-service training at the same time as their undergraduate degree are in a concurrent” program.[1]